By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our updated Cookie Notice. Why are companies in a business cluster more innovative? And what makes a business cluster particularly successful? The team studied business clusters in the biotech, cleantech and ICT information and communications technologies sectors in Canton of Zurich.
ETH News: Innovation is important for all companies. Why did you choose the biotech, cleantech and ICT sectors? Von Krogh: The pace and expansion of technological innovation has increased significantly — particularly in knowledge-intensive fields such as biotech, cleantech and ICT.
This development means that technology-intensive companies must continue to work faster to create new products — and they must do this with the global market and their competitors in mind.
Firms like Apple or IBM are driving this trend, but small businesses and company founders from anywhere in the world can suddenly revolutionise the market with an innovative idea.
What role do business clusters play in this process? Von Krogh: Expertise from a limited field of knowledge is often insufficient to develop a new product in technology-intensive sectors.
A business cluster facilitates rapid and direct knowledge exchange. Having a good local network supports a global presence. Geilinger: In the high-tech sector in particular, business clusters frequently emerge from start-up activities out of universities and are therefore concentrated in a geographical area. In a business cluster, employees from various firms know each other personally, either from working for the same past employers or from their university studies. People meet spontaneously in an informal environment where they swap experiences or bounce around ideas — something that happens rarely in relationships on a global scale.
This is where the true value of a business cluster lies. Generally, companies are reluctant to share their knowledge. How is it that those in a business cluster are willing to open up and exchange ideas? In a business cluster, companies tackle similar problems, making them more inclined to share their knowledge. Physical proximity is also a enabling factor.
Proximity engenders trust, which is not so easy to forge over video-conferences or occasional meetings. Collaboration on projects and regular meetings also lead to informal, personal relationships. Geilinger: Of course, nearly all firms possess knowledge that needs to remain confidential.
Our study also showed that business clusters are more successful when product and research spheres are similar. Can you give some examples? Geilinger: Up to now, firms in the biotech and ICT clusters in the Canton of Zurich have learned more from each other than those in the cleantech cluster. In the latter cluster, the products and objectives are more diverse: one company is developing a system to recover energy from waste while another is developing solar panels.
There is little overlap in these two areas.A basic understanding of networking in Hyper-V helps you plan networking for virtual machines. This article also covers some networking considerations when using live migration and when using Hyper-V with other server features and roles. Basic networking in Hyper-V is fairly simple. It uses two parts - a virtual switch and a virtual networking adapter. You'll need at least one of each to establish networking for a virtual machine.
The virtual switch connects to any Ethernet-based network. The virtual network adapter connects to a port on the virtual switch, which makes it possible for a virtual machine to use a network.
The easiest way to establish basic networking is to create a virtual switch when you install Hyper-V. Then, when you create a virtual machine, you can connect it to the switch. Connecting to the switch automatically adds a virtual network adapter to the virtual machine. For instructions, see Create a virtual switch for Hyper-V virtual machines. To handle different types of networking, you can add virtual switches and virtual network adapters. All switches are part of the Hyper-V host, but each virtual network adapter belongs to only one virtual machine.
The virtual switch is a software-based layer-2 Ethernet network switch. It provides built-in features for monitoring, controlling, and segmenting traffic, as well as security, and diagnostics. You can add to the set of built-in features by installing plug-ins, also called extensions. These are available from independent software vendors. For more information about the switch and extensions, see Hyper-V Virtual Switch.
Hyper-V offers three types of virtual switches and two types of virtual network adapters. You'll choose which one of each you want when you create it. Some advanced networking capabilities, such as extended port access control lists ACLscan only be managed by using cmdlets in the Hyper-V module. You can make some changes to a virtual switch or virtual network adapter after you create it.
For example, it's possible to change an existing switch to a different type, but doing that affects the networking capabilities of all the virtual machines connected to that switch. So, you probably won't do this unless you made a mistake or need to test something.
As another example, you can connect a virtual network adapter to a different switch, which you might do if you want to connect to a different network. But, you can't change a virtual network adapter from one type to another. Instead of changing the type, you'd add another virtual network adapter and choose the appropriate type.
External virtual switch - Connects to a wired, physical network by binding to a physical network adapter. Internal virtual switch - Connects to a network that can be used only by the virtual machines running on the host that has the virtual switch, and between the host and the virtual machines. Private virtual switch - Connects to a network that can be used only by the virtual machines running on the host that has the virtual switch, but doesn't provide networking between the host and the virtual machines.
Hyper-V specific network adapter - Available for both generation 1 and generation 2 virtual machines. It's designed specifically for Hyper-V and requires a driver that's included in Hyper-V integration services. This type of network adapter faster and is the recommended choice unless you need to boot to the network or are running an unsupported guest operating system.
The required driver is provided only for supported guest operating systems. Note that in Hyper-V Manager and the networking cmdlets, this type is just referred to as a network adapter. Legacy network adapter - Available only in generation 1 virtual machines.Perhaps you are interested in setting up a database consultancy firm but you have no idea what to do. You need not wonder anymore, because we have come up with a helpful business startup guide for you. Read on through this article, and you will find out how to start a database consultancy business.
With the migration of several functions into the electronic and digital domain, all information and files that a company uses are all placed into a database. This database is housed in a server that hosts all the computers within the network. It is through this server that the data is accessed and modified. However, not all company employees are knowledgeable or specialize in database applications.
There is the need for an outside expert to do the task for them, which is the database consultant. With the high demand for databases and for people that maintain them, database consultancy has proven to be a very lucrative moneymaking venture that anyone can go into.
Consultants are considered specialists; hence, if you plan to be a database consultant you should have a firm knowledge in IT specifically in databases. Having an experience using databases can also be beneficial and helpful to your line of work. If you have minimal or limited knowledge about databases, then you should take a step back and take some training to excel your knowledge before you try and start a career in database consultancy.
Database consultancy can be considered freelance work. You can work at the comfort of your own home. It can be a room that your family does not use like the attic or the basement, if you have one. It can be your garage or loft, just whatever space that is available. The office should be maintained and designed to reflect your professionalism and your field of expertise. You would need equipment like computers and other office supplies. You would need a devoted landline too, separate from your home telephone line.
Marketing yourself as a consultant literally requires nerve and smooth talk. You can always advertise yourself through the Internet, or through the yellow pages of your area. However, there are times that you would be required to do cold calling in order to get yourself across to potential clients.
Cold calling is defined as physically approaching your potential clients and advertising yourself.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Massimo Bianchi. The paper aims to discuss the state of art regarding the managerial side of international intervention to support the start-up of economies particularly considering SMEs diffusion as a tool for the democratization process and, with a comparative analysis, for the definition of the models prepared on the subject.
The paper aims to discuss the state of art regarding the managerial side of interna- New Business Creation Jones, bounded the tional interventions to support the start-up of econo- difference between the a-critic trust in traditional and mies particularly considering SMEs diffusion as a tool expensive interventions to stimulate the enterprise for the democratization process. Meanwhile it points creation. This change of perspective was motivated up the lack of feasible managerial models proposed by by a diffused awareness of restricted results fulfilled scholars on this subject.
Some attentive Authors Bianchi P. Bianchi, M. Baseska, S. Ngo Mai, L. Tampieri, J. Verges Eds. Theory and practice of project management, Il Ponte Vecchio ed. Rainfall sys- tribution of — resources The theory of the rooted enterprise, the on-going tem medium and in dis- decentralization pressure, the attention paid to the role little credits persed ac- of the local system and of the network organizations tivities in the relationship between companies are compo- Territorial nents of a new strategy for the development of enter- Limited paths and prises in difficult areas, more consistent with the diffusion - Structured area con- modern approaches to globalization.
State, a corporate culture which in the meantime be- Table 1: Evolution of Italian policy for the comes stronger also in the weaker areas and, last but entrepreneurial development not least, the gaining ground of economic districts and sectors as an engine for economic development. The evolution of Italian policies in last decades of XX The experiences in transition countries made vis- century, concerning the entrepreneurial development ible the complex framework in which this process has of the southern areas, highlights the conflict among to be inserted Table 2 different targets and approaches applied in this field.
This statement lead to a more reflexive consider- As summarized by Table 1, the pole strategy was used ation in the methodology of territorial governance in the years of Economic Planning and of the theory mainly linked to the regional dimension and the cen- of development areas It was based on tral role of local stakeholders placed in the centre of massive investments concentrated on the territory in structured interventions.
These investments were mainly made by large development projects in transition coun- Public or Private Companies suitably subsidized tries Momigliano, The expected results of this strategy were Cluster Analysis CA is one of the best-known tools that strong localized settlements would produce direct to orient the strategy of projects aiming to develop benefits for the local economy and society, but in par- entrepreneurship in transition countries. Diffusion opportunist entrepreneurship neurs Scarce awareness of historic 2.
Sturdy link of and environmental values. No crit- Creation of a cultural enterprise devoted to economic activities with ic acceptance of western models the organization of cultural events and of the re- the local culture of competitive and exploiting covering of cultural heritage.
No interest of local munici- E-government interventions to implement 3. University seats diorum and LLL oriented to entrepreneurial and that are not at all diffused in the spreaded in the territory managerial development. Establishment of a territory practice community with Long Distance Work- shop of simulated enterprises. Territorial data warehouse 5.
High network Project and carrying out of a Information practically not existent and many interconnections Territorial System. Settlements and Last years has been devoted Delivering of tools of territory analysis and industrial areas diffused to the exploitation of the environ- programming of urban development that enable in the territory with an ment without any consideration for investors and public powers to find settlement particular attention to cultural heritage and eco-balance.
A more ad- Transition Countries Local Systems referring to vanced action, as most of reports have a limited diffu- main actions of Development Projects.
As it concerns macro territorial interventions preneurial proposals with the purpose of choosing the there is a lack of resources for expensive development most profitable or promising initiatives to support programs. SMEs with financial or organizational facilities as in Consequently the agency can decide to intervene the case of Business Centers Models, One Stop Busi- by delivering information about territorial possibili- ness shops or Business Incubators.
Also the Agency intervention will be con- the particular social and economic framework. To this centrated in furnishing information, discussing and aim, the main sources are represented by data ware- implementing the business plan as well as controlling house or database, preferably on web, together with a its fulfillment. Agencies staff carry out this role of more or less intensive round of interviews with with clarifying ideas of entrepreneurial candidates lining local stakeholders.
This introduced some doubts about Clus- now, what kind of performance we can individuate tering. The Networking approach is based on the crea- 1.Business networking and relationships are crucial for entrepreneurs.
And while you can hope that flesh-and-blood success happens by accident, far more deals are born and ideas launched by rubbing elbows at the golf course or at chamber of commerce events than have ever been generated by knocking on doors. So you must actively network with peers, experts, financiers, and anyone else that can help you in your quest to start a business and make it a success. If you do, it can be one of the best ways to accelerate the growth of your startup venture.
Choose your spots: Deliberately and actively look for events that give you prime networking opportunities. If your business is national, going to the right seminar or trade show can be like shooting fish in a barrel — even if you do have to fly cross-country. Work the opportunity: Prioritize events where networking is part of the purpose.
Lend a shoulder: Many entrepreneurs forge their best contacts by working with others on a project or committee where everyone is striving genuinely to achieve some outside objective. This may be an industry-wide standards-setting group or a fund-raising committee for a local charity.
For Ed Neff, for example, volunteer service on local nonprofit boards allows him to contribute back to his Troy, NY community at the same time that fellow participants learn more about his risk-management consultancy, Compass Co.
Hand out those business cards: As the recognized currency of the networking realm, business cards can be a powerful weapon. Print them by the hundreds and hand them out liberally. And use the space wisely on these mini-billboards. Donald Kirkendall, for example, developed a two-sided business card whose reverse side lists the various services offered by his Affordable One Insurance agency in Orlando. Delve for contacts online: As in everything else that demands being connected to people, the internet can be a great tool for networking efficiently.
The StartupNation community offers a direct way for you search for fellow contacts that share your interests and learn from the wisdom of our community of entrepreneurs. Find a way to add value: As in everything else, come up with a networking twist that differentiates you. That way, you establish your own best conditions for networking and become a group champion. Plant a hook: Always create opportunities for conversation down the road.
Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website.Are you a talented entrepreneur looking to grow a high-impact startup in an entrepreneur-friendly country?
This is your chance to get a startup visa. Startup Denmark opens the door to a strong entrepreneurial ecosystem in which you can grow your business. You are only a few steps away from launching your high-impact startup in Denmark.
First, your business plan must be approved by the Startup Denmark expert panel. Second, you must apply for a residence and work permit at the Agency for International Recruitment and Integration. To get approved you need to provide us with a business plan that our panel of independent experts can evaluate and understand on a detailed level.
Business Networking for a Startup Business
Remember, the expert panel needs to have a clear idea of your business in order to make the best possible evaluation. Your approved business plan entitles you to apply for your residence and work permit at the Danish Agency for International Recruitment and Integration. When you receive your residence and work permit, you are ready to launch your startup in Denmark and become part of a booming entrepreneurial ecosystem.
Spring videre til indhold Live and launch your startup in Denmark Are you a talented entrepreneur looking to grow a high-impact startup in an entrepreneur-friendly country? We help you launch your business All startups in Denmark have access to free of charge guidance by public business experts. Join a thriving entrepreneurial ecosystem Denmark has a large network of public and private entrepreneur supporters, accelerators and incubators.
How to Describe the Management Team in Your Business Plan
Tap into public and private funding Startups based in Denmark can apply for a range of public funding schemes. Number 1 in Europe for ease of doing business — World Bank Key industries Tech Excellent conditions for tech companies to test and develop new IT solutions. Life science Join our life sciences cluster and turn clinical research into business. Cleantech Our national goal is to be powered completely by renewable sources by First step Get your business plan approved To get approved you need to provide us with a business plan that our panel of independent experts can evaluate and understand on a detailed level.
Second step Apply for work and residence permit Your approved business plan entitles you to apply for your residence and work permit at the Danish Agency for International Recruitment and Integration. Third step Launch your startup in Denmark When you receive your residence and work permit, you are ready to launch your startup in Denmark and become part of a booming entrepreneurial ecosystem.A business cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businessessuppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field.
Clusters are considered to increase the productivity with which companies can competenationally and globally. Accounting is a part of the business cluster. The term business cluster, also known as an industry clustercompetitive clusteror Porterian clusterwas introduced and popularized by Michael Porter in The Competitive Advantage of Nations The underlying concept, which economists have referred to as agglomeration economiesdates back toand the work of Alfred Marshall.
Michael Porter claims that clusters have the potential to affect competition in three ways: by increasing the productivity of the companies in the cluster, by driving innovation in the field, and by stimulating new businesses in the field.
According to Porter, in the modern global economycomparative advantage —how certain locations have special endowments i. Now, competitive advantage —how companies make productive use of inputs, requiring continual innovation —is more important. Put in another way, a business cluster is a geographical location where enough resources and competences amass reach a critical threshold, giving it a key position in a given economic branch of activity, and with a decisive sustainable competitive advantage over other places, or even a world supremacy in that field e.
Silicon Valley and Hollywood. A cluster is most of the time the result of initiatives, since it implies to convince current competitors to work jointly. The initiative usually comes from the political sphere e. Groot, the director of Dow Olefinverbund GmbH, a major chemicals complex at the intersection of three Eastearn Germany states Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia after the reunification.
The goal was to "encourage coordination among political and administrative officials" of Mitteldeutschland. Following development of the concept of interorganizational networks in Germany and practical development of clusters in the United Kingdom ; many perceive there to be four methods by which a cluster can be identified:. It is also expected — particularly in the German model of organizational networks — that interconnected businesses must interact and have firm actions within at least two separate levels of the organizations concerned.
The process of identifying, defining, and describing a cluster is not standardized. Individual economic consultants and researchers develop their own methodologies. All cluster analysis relies on evaluation of local and regional employment patterns, based on industrial categorizations such as NAICS or the increasingly obsolete SIC codes.
Notable databases providing statistical data on clusters and industry agglomeration include:. An alternative to clusters, reflecting the distributed nature of business operations in the wake of globalization, is hubs and nodes. In the mid- to late s several successful computer technology related companies emerged in Silicon Valley in California. This led anyone who wished to create a startup company to do so in Silicon Valley. The surge in the number of Silicon Valley startups led to a number of venture capital firms relocating to or expanding their Valley offices.
This in turn encouraged more entrepreneurs to locate their startups there.
In other words, venture capitalists sellers of finance and dot-com startups buyers of finance "clustered" in and around a geographical area. The cluster effect in the capital market also led to a cluster effect in the labor market.
As an increasing number of companies started up in Silicon Valley, programmers, engineers etc. This concentration of technically skilled people in the valley meant that startups around the country knew that their chances of finding job candidates with the proper skill-sets were higher in the valley, hence giving them added incentive to move there.
This in turn led to more high-tech workers moving there. With Seoul's rapidly growing cluster of multi-media, IT, and entertainment industries, the Digital Media City, through its vibrant agglomeration, helped to promote these industries and companies whose core business required use of information, communication, and media technologies.
DMC grew and prospered as a global business environment, raising Seoul as an east-Asian hub of commerce. The cluster of its digital media-related, high-tech firms spawned partnerships which in turn leveraged both human and social capital in the area.
Eventually, DMC fed the innovation of more than 10, small-scale Internet, game, and telecommunication firms located in Seoul.